The Flipped Classroom: High School Student Engagement Through 21st Century Learning


  • Kent Avery
  • Carolyn Huggan
  • Jane P. Preston



K-12, flipped classroom, 21st century learning, qualitative


The purpose of this qualitative study is to document the experiences of students who participated in a flipped classroom during a Grade 11 Modern World History and a Grade 11 Biology course. An abridged literature review revealed the flipped classroom provides enriched opportunities for collaborative learning and for greater teacher-student interaction; however, during the homework phase, some students are not equipped to be independent learners. For this action research project, we collected data from 48 students who completed three sets of qualitative questionnaires and participated in two focus groups. Augmented data included excerpts from reflective journals maintained by the flipped classroom teachers. From the data, three dominant themes surfaced. First, the flipped classroom promoted active learning. Second, it supported stronger relationships among students and their teachers. Third, it activated a steep learning curve. Details of 21st century learning are used to conceptualize the findings. One implication of the study is that, at the start of the flipped experience, teachers need to communicate fluidly to students what the flipped classroom is and is not.

            Keywords: flipped classroom; action research; 21st century learning